T-Mobile custom APN settings didn't help me and neither did the latest update. I use NordVPN WireGuard, but switching to OpenVPN doesn't help either.
T-Mobile doesn't work via IPv4 at all in my area. If I use custom APN settings and select IPv4 or IPv4/IPv6, then I don't get any data conneciton regardless of VPN Lockdown usage. Exclusive IPv6 is the only functional APN setting for me that allows for data to work...
I wish I knew more about the issue. There is a commit for it that describes eBPF changes, but that's too advanced for me. It has something to do with how VPN Lockdown setting treats inbound traffic on IPv6 networks.
At least in my case, I get a good stable connection once I enable Airplane mode, disable VPN Lockdown, disable Airplane mode, connect to VPN, and re-enable VPN lockdown.