Are the permissions shown on the all permissions screen for the app just those possible and the ones on the app permissions screen the ones the app is actually allowed to use? Seems like this must be the case but I can't find any documentation or discussion about this. There is one thread started on Reddit that was shut down without an answer or redirect. VLC and every app I check seems to have contradictory permissions between these two lists.
On the App info screen under permissions the text shows no permissions granted. Click that and you're now on the app permissions screen. Here, no permissions allowed is shown under allowed permissions. For VLC, microphone, network, notifications, and sensors are shown under not allowed. Great. Now click the three dot menu in the top right and go to the all permission screen. The first permission in the list is microphone and just below that shows record audio. Click that and a message says "this app can record audio using the microphone while the app is in use." This is just an example app and permission.