I don't think it comes from AI, more quantum computing, maybe mixed with AI.
Think of it this way, AI is still running on traditional computers, okay lots at once, but still even millions of modern computers together couldn't break AES256 encryption.
I think your title is worded incorrectly, instead maybe can AI affect GOS security? And the answer I think is, it could? But GOS it's self is hardened above normal android, and android has the open source + the sheer power of Google backing it, plus the grapheneos team who also put alot of effort into the system.
So, I'm theory yes it could have some effect on GOS security, but I don't think it's as big of an issue currently, it would have to be a targeted attack also, the bigger threat is quantum computing, not ChatGPT however.
Hope this makes some sense :)