Having daily driven qubes for years now, I can tell you there are certainly similarities.
Just like Xen virtualization, Android user profiles have been around for a long time.
What Qubes and GrapheneOS have done is implement a security model based around compartmentalization using these features.
Sandboxed Google services, and encouraging users to create different profiles for different domains of applications.
Graphene does not, however, fully utilize the disposable aspect that qubes has. They do have a guest profile however, they would need to automate a way to spin up guest mode and send untrusted links to it.
I doubt they will go this route because they are probably very satisfied with Google's application sandboxing as is.
There are significant differences though.
The way arm processors handle memory is very different. x86 virtualization can utilize a lot more RAM to give each VM its own memory. But also privileges and permissions are handled smartly on Android, in such a way that untrusted code should never run as root. Whereas on qubes, they must assume malware can run as root on app VMs.
Android on ARM is a very different architecture. I highly doubt it will run well if ported to qubes.
It would probably take a lot of work to get the disposable profile feature.
It would be slow as hell on mobile devices. And graphene would need to implement a lot of interprofile communication.