Thanks everyone for helping.
The app is 'itsme', which is used for logging in to government websites, banks, etc. in Belgium. So, it would be difficult without it!
I just checked, and seemingly, the app was also updated after my last use. So, I wouldn't know which update has caused the issue (or, maybe just a combination of the two).
@[deleted] and @treequell, I followed your [direct and indirect] suggestions and changed the "Exploit protection compatibility mode" and "enable native code debugging" options, and it worked! However, I'm really confused, because I just returned them to their default values, and the app is still working!