Just wanted to say that I ran into this exact situation on 2023061402 as well. Prior to setting "airplane_mode_radios" to "cell,nfc,wimax" (removing bluetooth and wifi), things worked normally. After making that switch, I had the exact same issue as OP. I got the same crashes as the OP in settings, unable to turn bluetooth mode off, etc. Only after re-adding "bluetooth" to the list would it start behaving "normally", with enabling airplane mode turning bluetooth off.
For now I'll just live with bluetooth being disabled when I enable airplane mode, and handle it with Macrodroid. At least now wifi doesn't get disabled when I enable airplane mode -- which was the original goal.