If your phone is up to date with a recent version, then yes, you can update Google Play stuff from Google Play Store.
Not sure when, but they've recently changed how all this works. Maybe a month or two ago? Something, I believe GmsCompat, sets a maximum allowed version number for Google Play Services and Store.
See this comment from one of the devs: https://discuss.grapheneos.org/d/2841-how-to-revert-play-store-to-apps-version/2
Since recently, Play Store became the primary way of updating Play services and Play Store.
Updates through Apps app usually arrive later.